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Count Gustav Siegmund Kálnoky (Hungarian: gróf Kálnoky Gusztáv Zsigmond), Austro-Hungarian statesman, was born on December 29, 1832 in Letovice (Lettowitz), Moravia to an old Transylvanian family which had held countly rank in Hungary from the 17th century. After spending some years in a hussar regiment, in 1854 he entered the diplomatic service without giving up his connection with the army, in which he reached the rank of general in 1879. He was for the ten years (1860–1870) secretary of embassy at London, and then, after serving at Rome and Copenhagen, was in 1880 appointed ambassador at St. Petersburg. His success in Russia procured for him, on the death of Baron Heinrich Karl von Haymerle in 1881, the appointment of minister of foreign affairs for Austria-Hungary, a post which he held for fourteen years.

Essentially a diplomatist, he took little or no part in the vexed internal affairs of the Dual Monarchy, and he came little before the public except at the annual statement on foreign affairs before the Delegations. His management of the affairs of his department was, however, very successful; he confirmed and maintained the alliance with Germany, which had been formed by his predecessors, and co-operated with Bismarck in the arrangements by which Italy joined the alliance. Kálnoky's special influence was seen in the improvement of Austrian relations with Russia, following on the meeting of the three emperors in September 1884 at Skierniewice, at which he was present. His Russophile policy caused some adverse criticism in Hungary. His friendliness for Russia did not, however, prevent him from strengthening the position of Austria as against Russia in the Balkan Peninsula by the establishment later of a closer political and commercial understanding with Serbia and Romania.

In 1885 he interfered after the battle of Slivnitsa to arrest the advance of the Bulgarians on Belgrade, but he lost influence in Serbia after the abdication of King Milan.

Though he kept aloof from the Clerical party, Kálnoky was a strong Catholic; and his sympathy for the difficulties of the Church caused adverse comment in Italy, when, in 1891, he stated in a speech before the Delegations that the question of the position of the Pope was still unsettled. He subsequently explained that by this he did not refer to the Roman question, which was permanently settled, but to the possibility of the Pope leaving Rome.

The jealousy felt in Hungary against the Ultramontanes led to his fall. In 1895 a case of clerical interference in the internal affairs of Hungary by the nuncio Antonio Agliardi aroused a strong protest in the Hungarian parliament, and consequent differences between Dezso" Bánffy, the Hungarian minister, and the minister for foreign affairs led to Kálnoky's resignation.

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Count_Gustav_K%C3%A1lnoky

Carel Hendrik count Ver Huell (also Verhuell) (Doetinchem, 4 February 1764 – Paris, 25 October 1845) was a Dutch, and later French, admiral and statesman. He married Maria Johanna de Bruyn on 22 February 1789 at Hummelo, and had three sons with her.

Ver Huell had a checkered career in which he switched allegiances a number of times. However, he was not alone in this (Talleyrand and Fouché come to mind). In any case, he always diligently served his current master, and often was able to restore a good relationship with former masters.
[edit] Dutch Republic

Ver Huell entered the military service of the Dutch Republic in 1785 as an officer cadet in an infantry regiment, but switched to the navy in 1779 to become a midshipman. On board the frigate Argo (40) he participated in the "Affair of Fielding and Bylandt", of 30 December 1779, during which a Dutch convoy, escorted by a squadron under Admiral Bylandt, was attacked in peace time by a British squadron under Commodore Charles Fielding.[1]

In 1781, he took part as a third lieutenant, still aboard Argo, in the Battle of Dogger Bank (1781), where he distinguished himself. For his conduct he was made a Knight (third class) in the Military Order of William, by William II of the Netherlands in 1843, 62 years after the battle. He was wounded during the battle, and was promoted to second lieutenant in recompense.

He served in the Mediterranean on board several vessels during the next few years of the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War. In 1785 he helped suppress a mutiny aboard a naval vessel on the Zuider Zee. For this he was promoted to first lieutenant.

He served in the Baltic, Mediterranean, and North Sea till 1789. Promoted to commander in 1791 he commanded a corvette on a voyage to the East Indies. In 1792 he was made an adjutant to admiral Van Kinsbergen, the commander-in-chief of the Dutch Navy. He organized a corps of armed sailors on shore. The next year he was promoted to captain.[2]
 Batavian Republic

As an Orangist adherent of Stadtholder William V, he was fired, like most officers of the navy, after the 1795 revolution that resulted in the proclamation of the Batavian Republic. During the first years of that Republic he did not try to re-enlist, like many other officers, such as Theodorus Frederik van Capellen. However, he apparently was involved in the preparations for the Vlieter Incident of 1799, when as an agent for the exiled Stadtholder he tried to persuade Van Capellen to organize a mutiny.[3]

After the 1801 coup of general Augereau, which brought the Staatsbewind to power in the Batavian Republic, and in general a more conservative regime, he was elected mayor of his birthplace Doetinchem (the same office his father had held) in 1802.

The next year war again broke out and the Batavian Republic was supposed to take part in the planned invasion of England. To this end a large flotilla of flat-bottomed boats was built in the Republic, that had to be transported over sea to Boulogne-sur-Mer, where the main invasion jump-off point was located. Ver Huell was selected to lead this dangerous mission as a vice-admiral.[4] On 18 July 1805, aboard Heemskerk, he was able to fend off an attack on this flotilla by admiral Sir William Sidney Smith near Cap Gris Nez. This feat under the eyes of Napoleon himself earned him the membership of the Légion d'honneur.[5]

The Staatsbewind now appointed admiral Ver Huell minister for the navy, but he at first declined the appointment, because he was appointed commander of the right wing of the naval army that Napoleon had assembled at Boulogne. Only after the project of invasion had been called off did he take up his ministerial appointment. He remained in this position under the new regime of Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck in 1805.[6]

During his time in France he became a confidant of Napoleon, however, and he now entered in a secret correspondence with Talleyrand and Napoleon in which he undermined Schimmelpenninck's position. This placed him in an excellent position to help prepare the transition to the Kingdom of Holland, which Napoleon desired. He led the delegation of the Dutch government that on 6 June 1806 "petitioned" Napoleon's brother Louis Napoleon to become King of "Holland.".[7] For this service he was promoted to Grand Aigle de la Légion d'Honneur.[8]

 Kingdom of Holland

The new king made him a marshal of Holland and continued him as Minister for the Navy. In 1807 he appointed him ambassador to France.[9]

During the Walcheren Campaign of 1809 admiral Ver Huell temporarily took command of the royal navy of the kingdom, aboard Koninklijken Hollander, and adequately defended the coast of the country. For this Louis created him count of Zevenaar.[10]

Meanwhile, however, Ver Huell remained in correspondence with Napoleon. He was a conscientious implementor of the policies of the emperor, even if those were not in the interest of his native country, like the Continental System, whereas Louis was more inclined to stand up to his brother, and defend the interests of his subjects. In this conflict of interests, Ver Huell steadfastly took the side of Napoleon and France. As in the last days of the Batavian Republic he was instrumental in bringing about the fall of the Kingdom.

 French Empire

After the annexation of the Netherlands to the French Empire in July, 1810, Ver Huell was made a vice-admiral in the imperial French navy. As such he was put in charge of French naval forces on the North German coast and in the Baltic, between Emden and Danzig. In 1811 Napoleon made him a count of the Empire (with a gratuity of 10,000 francs) and gave him a pension of 15,000 francs.

In 1812 he was made Grand Officier de l'Empire and given the naval command of Den Helder. This was still his position when the new "Sovereign Prince", William I of the Netherlands took power, in December, 1813, after the military collapse of the Empire. Ver Huell held out against the besieging Dutch forces in the fortress of Den Helder till Napoleon's abdication in 1814. He then left for France as an exile.[11]

Bourbon Restoration

In 1814 (as a post in William's new government was impossible because of his tenacious defense of Den Helder) Ver Huell acquired French nationality under the restored king Louis XVIII of France. Louis also maintained him in his naval rank and noble titles. He made him a chevalier dans l'ordre de Mérite militaire(Order of Military Merit). He also put him in charge of the naval defense of the French North Coast. During the Hundred Days, Ver Huell remained loyal to the Bourbon regime. However, when Napoleon wanted to escape to the United States after his second abdication in 1815, he asked that Ver Huell should be put in charge of the attempt, because of his reputation as a blockade runner. However, the Minister of the Navy, Denis Decrès decided that such a small command would be beneath Ver Huell's dignity (without consulting Ver Huell, who later declared he would have been honored).

Ver Huell resigned from the French navy in 1816. He was made a pair de France on 5 March 1819. This made him a member of the Chambre des Pairs for life. In 1836 he briefly served as French ambassador in Berlin. He died on October, 25, 1845.[12]

 Miscellaneous facts

There is a rumor that probably lacks any ground, but is hard to put to rest, that Ver Huell had a sexual relationship with Queen Hortense, the consort of King Louis of Holland. According to this rumor he fathered the future emperor Napoleon III of France.[13]

The name of Ver Huell is inscribed in the Arc de Triomphe in Paris as one of the generals of Napoleon (first column, fourth from the top, between Dembarrere and Rouyer).

Ver Huell was buried at the cemetery of Pere Lachaise. The headstone is inscribed: Concession à perpétuité de la famille de Mr. l'Amiral comte Ver Huell Pair de France. His brother Christiaan Anthonie Ver Huell (also a Dutch vice-admiral) , and two sons, are also buried in this cemetery.
[edit] References

^ Fiske, J. (1896) The American Revolution, Houghton, Mifflin and company, p. 153.
^ Facts taken from Mullié, op. cit
^ Roodhuyzen, T. (1998) In woelig vaarwater: marineofficieren in de jaren 1779-1802, De Bataafsche Leeuw, ISBN 9067074772, p. 164; see also Ver Huell, part I, pp. 112, 116
^ As the Stadtholder had renounced his claims at the Treaty of Amiens, Ver Huell now felt free to offer his services to the Batavian Republic.
^ De Jonge, pp. 556-577
^ Facts taken from Mullié, op. cit.
^ Schama, pp. 482-486.
^ Mullié, op. cit.
^ King Louis fired him as Minister for the Navy, because he thought Ver Huell acted more in his brother's than his own interests. Louis first appointed Ver Huell ambassador to St. Petersburg, but Napoleon demanded that he be made ambassador to France; De Jonge, p. 646, fn 1.
^ De Jonge, pp 670-671.
^ Mullié, op. cit.
^ Mullié, op. cit.
^ Rieder, H. (1998) Napoleon III. Abenteuer und Imperator, ISBN 3424014052, p. 28 ff.

References

(Dutch) Jonge, J.C. de, and Jonge, J.K. de (1862) Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche zeewezen, A.C. Kruseman
(French) « Charles Henri Ver-Huell », in: Mullié, C. (1852)Biographie des célébrités militaires des armées de terre et de mer de 1789 à 1850[1]
Schama, S. (1977), Patriots and Liberators. Revolution in the Netherlands 1780-1813, New York, Vintage books, ISBN 0-679-72949-6
(Dutch)Ver Huell, Q.M.R. (1847) Het Leven en Karakter van Carel Hendrik Graaf Ver Huell uit nagelaten aanteekeningen en andere authentieke stukken beschreven. Twee Deelen met portret en plaaten

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carel_Hendrik_Ver_Huell

Georg von Metzsch since 1899 by Metzsch-Reichenbach, (* August 14 1836 at Friesen at Reichenbach , Vogtland , † September 7th 1927 in Dresden ; full name: Karl Georg Levin Metzsch-Reichenbach) was a Saxon count, and politician, including Prime Minister (Chairman of the total ministry).

 Life

Metzsch came from the old Thuringian Vogtland- noble family . His father, Karl von Metzsch (1804-1880) was Lord Chamberlain and Oberhof butler in the royal court in Dresden, his brother Gustav von Metzsch master of ceremonies and a member of the First Chamber of the Saxon parliament. After studying law, he in Leipzig graduated, he joined the late 1860s when local court in Dresden, Saxony, a state service. From 1875 to 1880 was Metzsch official captain of the team's main office Oschatz, from 1880 to 1887 he held this office in Dresden-Neustadt. In 1888 he was lecturer in the Council of the Saxon Ministry of the Interior. In 1891 Metzsch interior minister, in the following year, Foreign Minister of the Kingdom of Saxony. 1901 Metzsch joined as Chairman of the Ministry (Prime Minister) to the top of the Saxony government.

The two brothers, Georg and Gustav received on 29 December 1899 in Dresden, the royal assent to the leadership of the name of Metzsch-rich stream and recording the emblem of the town of Reichenbach in the arms list. [1]

Metzsch influenced significantly in the years 1891 to 1906, the policy in Saxony. That he and the leading conservative politician Paul Mehnert 1896 against the further strengthening of the SPD introduced three-class suffrage 1905/06 had violent battles in Saxony election result. The conflicts in which there were also excesses of the police ultimately led to the resignation of Metzsch. As the King Friedrich August III. he was appointed lords of the manor from 1907 until its dissolution in 1918 the First Chamber of the Saxon Parliament at.  He was also minister of the royal family until 1918 (since 1901) and on 1 February 1916 in the hereditary title of Count levied.

Metzsch 1869 married his first wife Marion Goshen (1845-1877), a sister of the British politician George Joachim Goschen, 1st Viscount Goschen and Edward Goschen from the upper Lößnitz merchant family Goschen ( Villa Goschen ). George's family died out in the next generation.

Since 1856 Metzsch was a member of the Corps Misnia Leipzig.

References

Karlheinz Blaschke: Georg Graf von Reichenbach-Metzsch . In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 17, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1994, p. 263.

From http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=de&u=http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_von_Metzsch-Reichenbach&ei=bU2UTpywI-KGsgLAovnvAQ&sa=X&oi=translate&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBwQ7gEwAA&prev=/search?q=Georg+von+Metzsch+wiki&hl=en&client=firefox-a&hs=sJJ&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&prmd=imvns

1)   Austria, Accession of Empress Elizabeth, awarded to Foreign Minister Count Gustav Siegmund Kálnoky, 1882
2) France, permission to wear the Dutch Military Order of William 3rd Class, granted to Vice-Admiral
Charles Henri Count Ver Huell, 1843
Count Ver Huell was a Dutch, and later French, admiral and statesman who served Napoleon and numerous other rulers in a remarkable career which spanned 55 years; eventually French ambassador to Berlin.

3) France (3rd Republic) Legion of Honor, awarded to Georg von Metsch, Foreign Minister (later Prime Minister) of Saxony, 1898

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